It transforms hard water into the so-called soft water. Reducing its mineral contents does the transformation. Hard water mainly contains calcium and magnesium metal, and sometimes bicarbonates and sulfates. Soft water, on the other hand, is the type of water with none or little content of the mentioned minerals.
A Process is used in decreasing the calcium, magnesium, and in some cases manganese and ferrous iron dissolved in hard water. The fact is softener is a system for transforming chemically hard water into a soft water.
Softeners replace the calcium and magnesium contents in hard water by sodium. Sodium does not accumulate in pipes and also does not react to soap. This means hard water effects are eliminated. The principle of the softener system is easy to understand. Hard water is allowed to enter the water softener. It contains a layer of plastic beads and in some instances, the material used is called Zeolite. The layer of materials inside the water softener is soaked with sodium ions. Sodium is exchanged with the contents of the hard water, calcium, and magnesium. When water comes out of the softener, the water is said to be of the soft water type.
At a point in time, the plastic beads or Zeolite layer will be saturated with calcium and magnesium ions only. Regeneration process follows wherein water is mixed with high sodium content producing strong brine. Sodium ions again replace calcium and magnesium ions, which eventually are washed down the drain.
The ordinary cooking salt is cheap. The salt or sodium chloride is the source of sodium for water softeners. Large quantity of salt costs little. It is a good source for sodium used in water softener. Utilized in a water softener system are a number of cylindrical tanks and large square containers. The tanks are used as storage of already treated water and the container is for the salt used in the process. The number of tanks depends on the output and the system itself.
When it is installed for domestic or household purpose, the softener system is situated at the main entrance of the house plumbing system. In this manner of installation, all the water entering the house is already treated.
There are two main types of water softener systems. One is the electric single tank softener. This type, besides being costly, is a system with some setbacks. Soft water supply may run out since the system uses a single tank. It also may cause inconvenience because this type needs high pressure. Night hours bring high pressure. Noise caused by running motors is not welcome at these hours.
The hydraulic twin tank softener is the other softener type. This type ensures a continued supply of soft water for the household. The two tanks do the softening and regeneration processes alternatively. This way, there will be no chance of running out of soft water supply.
Salt containers should be refilled regularly. Most softeners do not have salt level indicator; it is a wise decision to check salt level periodically to avoid contamination of water tanks. The softeners operate continuously even without salt, which may result in tank contamination.
Salt-based water softener systems are not effective one hundred per cent. Only 75 per cent of the calcium and magnesium water content is removed. The salt-based softener also releases to the environment huge amount of lime brine.
A newly developed softener system is digital. The Soo~Soft Digital Electronic Water Softening System is a revolutionary innovation in water softening procedures. It is environmentally friendly and as effective as a salt-type water softener.